Nano device prototyping (NDP) is essential for realizing and assessing ideas as well as theories in the form of nano devices, before they can be made available in or as commercial products. In this review, application results patterned similarly to those in the semiconductor industry (for cell phone, computer processors, or memory) will be presented. For NDP, some requirements are different: thus, other technologies are employed. Currently, in NDP, for many applications direct write Gaussian vector scan electron beam lithography (EBL) is used to define the required features in organic resists on this scale. We will take a look at many application results carried out by EBL, self-organized 3D epitaxy, atomic probe microscopy (scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope), and in more detail ion beam techniques. For ion beam techniques, there is a special focus on those based upon liquid metal (alloy) ion sources, as recent developments have significantly increased their applicability for NDP.
Bruchhaus, L., Mazarov, P., Bischoff, L., Gierak, J., Wieck, A. D., & Hövel, H. (2017, March 1). Comparison of technologies for nano device prototyping with a special focus on ion beams: A review. Applied Physics Reviews. American Institute of Physics Inc. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4972262