Immunomodulatory actions of central ghrelin in diet-induced energy imbalance

24Citations
Citations of this article
40Readers
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
Get full text

Abstract

We investigated the effects of centrally administered orexigenic hormone ghrelin on energy imbalance-induced inflammation. Rats were subjected for four weeks to three different dietary regimes: normal (standard food), high-fat (standard food with 30% lard) or food-restricted (70%, 50%, 40% and 40% of the expected food intake in 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week, respectively). Compared to normal-weight controls, starved, but not obese rats had significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β, IFN-γ) in the blood. When compared to normally fed animals, the hearts of starved and obese animals expressed higher levels of mRNAs encoding proinflammatory mediators (TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-12, iNOS), while mRNA levels of the anti-inflammatory TGF-β remained unchanged. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ghrelin (1 μg/day) for five consecutive days significantly reduced TNF, IL-1β and IFN-γ levels in the blood of starved rats, as well as TNF, IL-17 and IL-12p40 mRNA expression in the hearts of obese rats. Conversely, ICV ghrelin increased the levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 mRNA in the heart tissue of food-restricted animals. This was associated with an increase of immunosuppressive ACTH/corticosterone production in starved animals and a decrease of the immunostimulatory adipokine leptin both in food-restricted and high-fat groups. Ghrelin activated the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hypothalamus and inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the hearts of obese, but not starved rats. Therefore, central ghrelin may play a complex role in energy imbalance-induced inflammation by modulating HPA axis, leptin and AMPK/ERK signaling pathways. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Cite

CITATION STYLE

APA

Stevanovic, D., Starcevic, V., Vilimanovich, U., Nesic, D., Vucicevic, L., Misirkic, M., … Trajkovic, V. (2012). Immunomodulatory actions of central ghrelin in diet-induced energy imbalance. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 26(1), 150–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2011.08.009

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free