Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) is a multifunctional RNA-binding protein with an oncofetal pattern of expression shown to be implicated in the development of a variety of malignancies. In this study, we explored the role and mechanisms of IGF2BP1 in melanoma development and progression. In two different in vivo models, we showed that although genetic deletion or shRNA-mediated suppression of IGF2BP1 did not affect primary tumor formation, it drastically suppressed lung metastasis. Here we demonstrated that extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by melanoma cells mediate the effects of IGF2BP1 on metastasis: EVs from the IGF2BP1 knockdown melanoma cells failed to promote metastasis, whereas EVs isolated from IGF2BP1-overexpressed melanoma cells further accelerated EV-induced metastasis. Moreover, the EVs from IGF2BP1 knockdown melanoma cells inhibited fibronectin deposition and accumulation of CD45+ cells in the lungs compared with control EVs, thus blocking the pre-metastatic niche formation potential of EVs. IGF2BP1 knockdown did not affect size, number, or protein/RNA concentration of secreted EVs or their uptake by recipient cells in vitro or in vivo. However, RNA-sequencing and proteomics analysis of the EVs revealed differential expression in a number of mRNA, proteins, and miRNAs. This suggested that IGF2BP1 is intimately involved in the regulation of the cargo of EVs, thereby affecting the pro-metastatic function of melanoma-derived EVs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the role of RNA-binding protein IGF2BP1 in EV-mediated promotion of melanoma metastasis and may provide novel avenues for the development of metastatic inhibitors.
Ghoshal, A., Rodrigues, L. C., Gowda, C. P., Elcheva, I. A., Liu, Z., Abraham, T., & Spiegelman, V. S. (2019). Extracellular vesicle-dependent effect of RNA-binding protein IGF2BP1 on melanoma metastasis. Oncogene, 38(21), 4182–4196. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-019-0797-3