Packaging of food consists of the operations shown in Fig. 13.1. These operations may be distinguished in package preparing operations, product preparing for filling operations, filling in packages, closing (sealing), control of filled packages, and preparation for storage and shipment. The equipment used in feeding the food into the filling unit depends on the nature and properties of the food. For liquids, pumps or gravity is used. For granulates or small pieces, transfer can be done pneumatically, by special pumps, gravity, or belts. Larger pieces are transferred to the packaging line by conveyors or trucks. Before being packaged, the product is stored shortly in feeding tanks or other containers. Depending on the filling technique, the tank may be open or closed. The product in closed tanks may be under pressure or in vacuum. When using trucks or conveyors, mounted on the ceiling, the short storage may be in intermediate bulk containers (Chap. 3), replacing the fixed short storage equipment. In all cases, the main aim of short storage is to have a product of constant properties. Therefore, if, e.g., a liquid food consists of mixed components, it is continuously agitated to secure homogeneity in consistency and temperature.
Saravacos, G., & Kostaropoulos, A. E. (2016). Food packaging equipment. In Food Engineering Series (pp. 645–696). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25020-5_13