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Background: Urinary and faecal metabolic profiling have been extensively studied in gastrointestinal diseases as potential diagnostic markers, and to enhance our understanding of the intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis these conditions. The impact of bowel cleansing on the microbiome has been investigated in several studies, but limited to just one study on the faecal metabolome. Aim: To compare the effects of bowel cleansing on the composition of the faecal microbiome, and the urine and faecal metabolome. Methods: Urine and faecal samples were obtained from eleven patients undergoing colonoscopy at baseline, and then at day 3 and week 6 after colonoscopy. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyse changes in the microbiome, and metabonomic analysis was performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. Results: Microbiomic analysis demonstrated a reduction in alpha diversity (Shannon index) between samples taken at baseline and three days following bowel cleansing (p = 0.002), and there was no significant difference between samples at baseline and six weeks post colonoscopy. Targeted and non-targeted analysis of urinary and faecal bacterial associated metabolites showed no significant impact following bowel cleansing. Conclusions: Bowel cleansing causes a temporary disturbance in bacterial alpha diversity measured in faeces, but no significant changes in the faecal and urine metabolic profiles, suggesting that overall the faecal microbiome and its associated metabolome is resistant to the effects of an induced osmotic diarrhoea.
Powles, S. T. R., Gallagher, K. I., Chong, L. W. L., Alexander, J. L., Mullish, B. H., Hicks, L. C., … Orchard, T. R. (2022). Effects of bowel preparation on intestinal bacterial associated urine and faecal metabolites and the associated faecal microbiome. BMC Gastroenterology, 22(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-022-02301-1