Consideration of future consequences (CFC): Validation and proposition of an ultra-short scale

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Consideration of future consequences (CFC) assesses the extent to which individuals evaluate future outcomes of their current behaviour. This personality trait has been traditionally used as a unidimensional construct, but recent research has highlighted the theoretical and empirical relevance in differentiating between consideration of immediate and future consequences. The present research shows psychometric evidence for the CFC scale in Brazil, and proposes an ultra-short version of the measure. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity, and short-term test-retest reliability in Study 1 supported the two-factor structure of the CFC scale. In Study 2, we used item response theory to evaluate the discrimination and difficulty levels of the CFC scale and to test an ultra-short form with samples from Brazil and New Zealand. Correlations with personality, values, and attitudes and intentions to exercise and to eat healthy show that the ultra-short form (6 items) works similarly to the full form of the CFC scale (14 items).




Vilar, R., Milfont, T. L., Araújo, R. de C. R., Coelho, G. L. de H., Soares, A. K. S., & Gouveia, V. V. (2022). Consideration of future consequences (CFC): Validation and proposition of an ultra-short scale. Current Psychology, 41(6), 3428–3442.

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