The association between plasma carotenoids and prostate cancer risk was investigated in a case-control study nested within the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We matched 450 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed from 1993-1998 to 450 controls by age, time, month, and year of blood donation. Modest inverse, but not statistically significant, associations were observed among plasma α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene concentrations, and overall risk of prostate cancer diagnosis (odds ratio (highest versus lowest quintile; OR), α-carotene: OR, 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.40-1.09]; β-carotene: OR, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.48-1.25); lycopene: OR, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.38-1.13)}. The inverse association between plasma lycopene concentrations and prostate cancer risk was limited to participants who were 65 years or older (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23-0.98) and without a family history of prostate cancer (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26-0.89). Combining, older age and a negative family history provided similar results (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.18-1.02). Inverse associations between β-carotene and prostate cancer risk were also found among younger participants (<65 years of age; OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.91; Ptrend = 0.03). Combining dietary intake and plasma data confirmed our results. We found a statistically significant inverse association between higher plasma lycopene concentrations and lower risk of prostate cancer, which was restricted to older participants and those without a family history of prostate cancer. This observation suggests that tomato products may exhibit more potent protection against sporadic prostate cancer rather than those with a stronger familial or hereditary component. In addition, our findings also suggest that among younger men, diets rich in β-carotene may also play a protective role in prostate carcinogenesis.
Wu, K., Erdman, J. W., Schwartz, S. J., Platz, E. A., Leitzmann, M., Clinton, S. K., … Giovannucci, E. (2004). Plasma and Dietary Carotenoids, and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 13(2), 260–269. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-03-0012