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Red-green colour vision deficiency (CVD) affects ~ 4% of Caucasians. Notch filters exist to simulate CVD when worn by colour vision normal (CVN) observers (simulation tools), or to improve colour discrimination when worn by CVD observers (compensation tools). The current study assesses effects of simulation (Variantor) and compensation (EnChroma) filters on performance in a variety of tasks. Experiments were conducted on 20 CVN and 16 CVD participants under no-filter and filter conditions (5 CVN used Variantor; 15 CVN and 16 CVD used EnChroma). Participants were tested on Ishihara and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue tests, CVA-UMinho colour discrimination and colour naming tasks and a board-game colour-sorting task. Repeated-measures ANOVAs found Variantor filters to significantly worsen CVN performance, mimicking protanopia. Mixed-model and repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrate that EnChroma filters do not significantly enhance performance in CVD observers. Key EnChroma results were replicated in 8 CVD children (Ishihara test) and a sub-sample of 6 CVD adults (CVA-UMinho colour discrimination and colour naming tasks) for a smaller stimulus size. Pattern similarity exists across hue for discrimination thresholds and naming errors. Variantor filters are effective at mimicking congenital colour vision defects in CVN observers for all tasks, however EnChroma filters do not significantly compensate for CVD in any.
Álvaro, L., Linhares, J. M. M., Formankiewicz, M. A., & Waugh, S. J. (2022). Coloured filters can simulate colour deficiency in normal vision but cannot compensate for congenital colour vision deficiency. Scientific Reports, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13877-9