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Background: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance was conducted as part of the World Health Organization’s strategy for completely eradicating poliomyelitis and leaving non-polio enteroviruses NPEVs as one of the main potential causes of AFP. We aimed to detect NPEV in association with AFP. Methods: We used 459 isolates reported to be Negative Polio and some NPEVs by the World Health Organization Polio Regional Reference Laboratory (Thailand), which had been obtained during polio surveillance programmes conducted in Thailand in 2013–2014. Of 459 isolates, 35 belonged to the genus Enterovirus by RT-PCR and genotyping by DNA sequencing. Results: This study found 17 NPEV genotypes, with 3, 13 and 1 belonging to enterovirus (EV) species A (EV-A), EV-B, and EV-C, respectively. The EV-A types identified included coxsackievirus A2 (CA2), CA4, and EV71, typically associated with hand, foot and mouth diseases. EV-B is the most prevalent cause of AFP in Thailand, while CA21 was the only type of EV-C detected. The EV-B species (13/35; 76.5%) constituted the largest proportion of isolates, followed by EV-A (3/35; 17.6%) and EV-C (1/35; 5.9%). For the EV-B species, Echovirus (E) 30 and CVB were the most frequent isolates. E30, CVB, E14, and E6 were considered endemic strains. Conclusion: NPEVs, e.g. CA4, are reported for the first time in Thailand. Despite some limitations to this study, this is the first report on the circulation patterns of NPEVs associated with AFP in Thailand. AFP surveillance has unearthed many unknown NPEVs and, the cases of death due to AFP occur annually. Therefore, it is important to study NPEVs in the wake of the eradication of poliovirus in the context of the continued incidence of paralysis.
Onvimala, N., Kosoltanapiwat, N., Pumirat, P., Vanaporn, M., Nimmanitya, S., Tacharoenmuang, R., … Leaungwutiwong, P. (2021). Genotyping of non-polio enteroviruses associated with acute flaccid paralysis in Thailand in 2013 and 2014. Virology Journal, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-021-01621-0