Carver Mead introduced “neuromorphic engineering”  as an interdisciplinary approach to the design of biologically inspired neural information processing systems, whereby neurophysiological models of perception and information processing in biological systems are mapped onto analog VLSI systems that not only emulate their functions but also resemble their structure . The motivation for emulating neural function and structure in analog VLSI is the realization that challenging tasks of perception, classification, association and control successfully performed by living organisms can only be accomplished in artificial systems by using an implementation medium that matches their structure and organization.
Neuromorphic Systems Engineering. (1998). Neuromorphic Systems Engineering. Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/b102308