A washing process was studied to evaluate the efficiency of saponin on remediating heavy metal contaminated soils. Three different types of soils (Andosol: soil A, Cambisol: soil B, Regosol: soil C) were washed with saponin in batch experiments. Utilization of saponin was effective for removal of heavy metals from soils, attaining 90-100% of Cd and 85-98% of Zn extractions. The fractionations of heavy metals removed by saponin were identified using the sequential extraction. Saponin was effective in removing the exchangeable and carbonated fractions of heavy metals from soils. In recovery procedures, the pH of soil leachates was increased to about 10.7, leading to separate heavy metals as hydroxide precipitates and saponin solute. In addition recycle of used saponin is considered to be effective for the subsequent utilization. The limits of Japanese leaching test were met for all of the soil residues after saponin treatment. As a whole, this study shows that saponin can be used as a cleaning agent for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hong, K. J., Tokunaga, S., & Kajiuchi, T. (2002). Evaluation of remediation process with plant-derived biosurfactant for recovery of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Chemosphere, 49(4), 379–387. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00321-1