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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in young children, the elderly, and the immunosuppressed. Currently, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available that effectively target RSV infections, proving a significant challenge in regards to prevention and treatment. An in-depth understanding of the host-virus interactions that underlie assembly and budding would inform new targets for antiviral development. Current research suggests that the polymerised form of actin, the filamentous or F-actin, plays a role in RSV assembly and budding. Treatment with cytochalasin D, which disrupts F-actin, has been shown to inhibit virus release. In addition, the actin cytoskeleton has been shown to interact with the RSV matrix (M) protein, which plays a central role in RSV assembly. For this reason, the interaction between these two components is hypothesised to facilitate the movement of viral components in the cytoplasm and to the budding site. Despite increases in our knowledge of RSV assembly and budding, M-actin interactions are not well understood. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the role of actin cytoskeleton during assembly and budding of RSV with the aim to integrate disparate studies to build a hypothetical model of the various molecular interactions between actin and RSV M protein that facilitate RSV assembly and budding.
Shahriari, S., Gordon, J., & Ghildyal, R. (2016, September 26). Host cytoskeleton in respiratory syncytial virus assembly and budding. Virology Journal. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-016-0618-z