Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of cardiovascular damage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies

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Abstract

Background: We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiac as well as coronary impairment evaluated using imaging modalities. Finding of this study will provide more robust evidence regarding OSA-induced cardiovascular damage. Methods: We systematically searched through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases for relevant literatures on the association between OSA and cardiovascular damage evaluated using imaging modalities, and manually searched the references of selected articles for additional relevant articles. For each clinical parameter relevant to the meta-analysis, we first evaluated the methodological heterogeneity of the relevant studies and thereafter pooled the data together using fixed effect or random effect model. The difference in the relevant indices of cardiovascular damage between OSA patients and controls was evaluated using the standardized mean difference. Results: Of the 82 articles included in the final systematic analysis, 20 studies explored the association between OSA and coronary atherosclerosis. OSA patients had higher rate of coronary atherosclerosis assessed by coronary artery calcification score and plaque volume. Moreover, the severity of OSA and coronary atherosclerosis displayed a positive correlation. The rest of the studies (n = 62) evaluated cardiac alterations in OSA patients. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 46 studies yielding 3082 OSA patients and 1774 controls were pooled for the meta-analysis. For left cardiac structure and function, OSA patients exhibited significantly wider left atrial diameter; higher left atrium volume index; wider left ventricular end-systolic diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and left ventricular mass; higher left ventricular mass index; wider interventricular septum diameter and posterior wall diameter; and higher left ventricular myocardial performance index (all p < 0.05). In addition, compared with controls, left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly decreased in OSA patients (p = 0.001). For right cardiac structure and function, OSA patients displayed a significant increase in right ventricular diameter and right ventricular myocardial performance index (both p < 0.001). Finally, compared with controls, OSA patients displayed significant decrease in tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and RV fractional area change (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Overall, this systematic review and meta-analysis provides imaging evidence in support that OSA patients are at a higher risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis and display cardiac remodeling and dysfunction.

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Lu, M., Wang, Z., Zhan, X., & Wei, Y. (2021, December 1). Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of cardiovascular damage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies. Systematic Reviews. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-021-01759-6

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