Although recent changes in health care delivery have improved routine and gender-affirming care for transgender people, common approaches to care are still often based on a binary (i.e., male/female) gender framework that can make patients with gender-nonconforming (GNC) identities and expressions feel marginalized. Binary representation perpetuates invisibility, discrimination, and victimization-and subsequent poorer health-among GNC patients. In response, clinicians and health care systems should extend their efforts to provide gender-affirming and responsible care to GNC people. This article reviews terminology related to gender, the limited research-and necessary directions for future research-on GNC communities, and provides strategies for health care professionals and systems to ensure provision of gender-affirming and responsible care to GNC patients.
Eckstrand, K. L., Ng, H., & Potter, J. (2016, November 1). Affirmative and responsible health care for people with nonconforming gender identities and expressions. AMA Journal of Ethics. American Medical Association. https://doi.org/10.1001/journalofethics.2016.18.11.pfor1-1611