We present a learning approach for efficiently inducing adaptive behaviour of route instructions. For such a purpose we propose a two-stage approach to learn a hierarchy of wayfinding strategies using hierarchical reinforcement learning. Whilst the first stage learns low-level behaviour, the second stage focuses on learning high-level behaviour. In our proposed approach, only the latter is to be applied at runtime in user-machine interactions. Our experiments are based on an indoor navigation scenario for a building that is complex to navigate. We compared our approach with flat reinforcement learning and a fully-learnt hierarchical approach. Our experimental results show that our proposed approach learns significantly faster than the baseline approaches. In addition, the learnt behaviour shows to adapt to the type of user and structure of the spatial environment. This approach is attractive to automatic route giving since it combines fast learning with adaptive behaviour. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Cuayáhuitl, H., Dethlefs, N., Frommberger, L., Richter, K. F., & Bateman, J. (2010). Generating adaptive route instructions using hierarchical reinforcement learning. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) (Vol. 6222 LNAI, pp. 319–334). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14749-4_27