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Measuring membrane voltage with microbial rhodopsins

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Membrane voltage (V m) is a fundamental biological parameter that is essential for neuronal communication, cardiac activity, transmembrane transport, regulation of signaling, and bacterial motility. Optical measurements of V m promise new insights into how voltage propagates within and between cells, but effective optical contrast agents have been lacking. Microbial rhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage indicators are exquisitely sensitive and fast, but very dim, necessitating careful attention to experimental procedures. This chapter describes how to make optical voltage measurements with microbial rhodopsins. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.




Cohen, A. E., & Hochbaum, D. R. (2014). Measuring membrane voltage with microbial rhodopsins. Methods in Molecular Biology, 1071, 97–108.

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