In recent years, the concept of ‘hedging’ has risen to prominence in international relations discourse. Hedging normally refers in that context to a national security or alignment strategy, undertaken by one state toward another, featuring a mix of cooperative and confrontational elements. It is often contrasted with balancing or bandwagoning, concepts developed during the Cold War era to depict the alternative strategies of resisting or accommodating a mighty or menacing great power. The idea of hedging arose as scholars examined the novel dynamics of international politics in the post-Cold War period and found prevailing theoretical approaches inadequate.
Ciorciari, J. D., & Haacke, J. (2019). Hedging in international relations: an introduction. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 19(3), 367–374. https://doi.org/10.1093/irap/lcz017