Cooking frequency and hypertension with gender as a modifier

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Background: The effect of cooking frequency on hypertension is understudied. This study aimed to examine the effect of cooking on hypertension with a particular focus on gender differences. Methods: The present study utilized cross-sectional data from China Kadoorie Biobank with a 512,891-population of China. Hypertension was identified by established diagnosis or by the 1999 WHO/ISH Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension on examination. Cooking frequency was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire and categorized as daily cooking, weekly or monthly cooking and never cooking. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to examine the associations between cooking frequency and hypertension in men and women, respectively. Stratified analyses by demographic and socio-economic characteristics were conducted. Results: Men who ever cooked had higher odds of hypertension compared with those who never cooked (weekly or monthly cooking adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07; Daily cooking AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.06-1.11), while protective effects of cooking against hypertension were observed in women (weekly or monthly cooking AOR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99; daily cooking AOR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99). Socio-economic status including occupation, household income, education and region could further modify the effect of daily cooking on hypertension among men and women, respectively. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the effect of cooking on hypertension. We found the opposite trends in men and women with regards to the association between cooking and hypertension. Factors relating to socio-economic status such as education, household income and occupation could further modify the gender-specific effects. Interventions to reduce hypertension should consider the gender differences in food choice and psycho-social stress related to cooking.




Zhang, Y., Tang, T., & Tang, K. (2019). Cooking frequency and hypertension with gender as a modifier. Nutrition Journal, 18(1).

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