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Major arcs for Goldbach's problem

  • Helfgott H
ArXiv: 1305.2897
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The ternary Goldbach conjecture states that every odd number $n\geq 7$ is the sum of three primes. The estimation of the Fourier series $\sum_{p\leq x} e(\alpha p)$ and related sums has been central to the study of the problem since Hardy and Littlewood (1923). Here we show how to estimate such Fourier series for $\alpha$ in the so-called major arcs, i.e., for $\alpha$ close to a rational of small denominator. This is part of the author's proof of the ternary Goldbach conjecture. In contrast to most previous work on the subject, we will rely on a finite verification of the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis up to a bounded conductor and bounded height, rather than on zero-free regions. We apply a rigorous verification due to D. Platt; the results we obtain are both rigorous and unconditional. The main point of the paper will be the development of estimates on parabolic cylinder functions that make it possible to use smoothing functions based on the Gaussian. The generality of our explicit formulas will allow us to work with a wide variety of such functions.




Helfgott, H. A. (2013). Major arcs for Goldbach’s problem. Retrieved from

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