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Background: Use of kinase inhibitors such as dasatinib and imatinib might increase the risk of opportunistic infections, especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. However, the effect of sorafenib on EBV and CMV infections remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sorafenib maintenance post-transplantation on the incidence and mortality of EBV and CMV infections in patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia. Methods: This was a follow-up of our randomized controlled trial undertaken at seven hospitals in China. The primary endpoint was EBV and CMV infections within 3 years post-transplantation. Secondary endpoints included the cumulative incidences of relapse, non-relapse mortality (NRM), overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free/relapse-free survival (GRFS) at 3 years. Results: Two hundred two patients were assigned to sorafenib maintenance (n=100) or non-maintenance (control, n=102). Median extended follow-up post-transplantation was 36.8 (range, 2.5–67.1) months. The 3-year cumulative incidences of EBV-DNAemia and EBV-associated diseases were 24.0% (95% CI: 16.1–32.8%) and 5.0% (1.8–10.6%) in the sorafenib group, and 24.5% (16.6–33.2%) and 5.9% (2.4–11.6%) in the control group (P=0.937; P=0.771). The 3-year cumulative incidences of CMV-DNAemia and CMV-associated diseases were 56.0% (45.6–65.1%) and 8.0% (3.7–14.4%) in the sorafenib group, and 52.9% (42.7–62.1%) and 8.8% (4.3–15.3%) in the control group (P=0.997; P=0.826). The 3-year cumulative mortality of EBV- and CMV-associated diseases was 0.0% (0.0–0.0%) and 2.0% (0.4–6.4%) in the sorafenib group, and 1.0% (0.1–4.8%) and 2.0% (0.4–6.3%) in the control group (P=0.322, P=0.980). The 3-year cumulative incidences of relapse, NRM, OS, LFS, and GRFS were 13.0%, 11.1%, 79.0%, 75.9%, and 65.8% in the sorafenib group and 34.8%, 12.7%, 61.4%, 52.5%, and 46.6% in the control group, respectively (P<0.001, P=0.656, P=0.005, P<0.001, P=0.003). The reconstitution of T lymphocyte subsets, B lymphocytes, and natural killer cells was similar between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Sorafenib maintenance post-transplantation does not increase the incidence and mortality of EBV and CMV infections, demonstrating a favorable safety profile. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02474290. Registered on June 14, 2015
Xu, X., Fan, Z., Wang, Y., Huang, F., Xu, Y., Sun, J., … Xuan, L. (2022). Effect of sorafenib maintenance on Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections in patients with FLT3-ITD AML undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. BMC Medicine, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-022-02479-x
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