Objectives This study investigated the association of alpha-1-antrypsin deficiency (A1AT; S and Z polymorphisms) with HIV-1 and HTLV-1 infection. Methods Blood samples from 201 HIV-1-infected and 115 HTLV-1-infected individuals were examined and compared with those from 300 healthy controls. Genotyping of A1AT (S and Z) and quantification of plasma viral load were performed using RT-PCR, and the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell count was determined by flow cytometry. Results The wild-type MM genotype showed the highest frequency in each of the three groups investigated. SS and ZZ homozygous genotypes (variants) were observed only among HTLV-1 patients and controls, respectively. Genotype MS was significantly less frequent in HTLV-1-positive persons than in controls. Statistically significant differences were observed when comparing genotype frequencies between symptomatic and asymptomatic HTLV-1-infected persons. The distribution of plasma HIV-1 viral load among individuals with different genotypes of A1AT polymorphism also differed significantly. Conclusions The results suggest that A1AT polymorphisms may be associated with human retrovirus infections when dealing with an ethnically mixed population from the Amazon region of Brazil.
Ferreira, T. C. da S., Queiroz, M. A. F., Argañaraz, G. A., Ishak, R., Vallinoto, A. C. R., & Argañaraz, E. R. (2017). A1AT polymorphisms may be associated with clinical characteristics of retrovirus infections in a mixed ethnic population from the Brazilian Amazon region. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 65, 67–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2017.10.002