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Microarray analysis to monitor bacterial cell wall homeostasis

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Transcriptomics, the genome-wide analysis of gene transcription, has become an important tool for characterizing and understanding the signal transduction networks operating in bacteria. Here we describe a protocol for quantifying and interpreting changes in the transcriptome of Streptomyces coelicolor that take place in response to treatment with three antibiotics active against different stages of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The results defi ned the transcriptional responses associated with cell envelope homeostasis including a generalized response to all three antibiotics involving activation of transcription of the cell envelope stress sigma factor σ E, together with elements of the stringent response, and of the heat, osmotic, and oxidative stress regulons. Many antibiotic-specifi c transcriptional changes were identifi ed, representing cellular processes potentially important for tolerance to each antibiotic. The principles behind the protocol are transferable to the study of cell envelope homeostatic mechanisms probed using alternative chemical/environmental insults or in other bacterial strains.




Hong, H. J., & Hesketh, A. (2016). Microarray analysis to monitor bacterial cell wall homeostasis. In Methods in Molecular Biology (Vol. 1440, pp. 31–46). Humana Press Inc.

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