Warm dense matter is difficult to generate since it corresponds to a state of matter which pressure is order of magnitude larger than can be handled by natural materials. A diamond anvil can be used to pressurize matter up to one Gbar, this matter is at high density but at room temperature. High power lasers and heavy ion beams can generate warm dense matter on time scales where measuring quasi-static transport coefficients such as viscosity or heat conduction proves difficult since both experimental techniques relies on inertial confinement. We present here a third method to generate warm dense matter. It uses a pulsed-power driver which current rise time is substantially shortened by using a plasma opening switch, limiting the development of electrothermal instabilities. The switch relies on the implosion of a gas puff Z-pinch which carries most of the discharge current until the pinch reaches the sample. After that, the sample is compressed until it reaches the warm dense matter regime. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics computations show that if the density of the gas is low enough no detectable instabilities (e.g. kinks and sausages modes) impede the remainder of the implosion.
Gourdain, P. A., & Seyler, C. E. (2017). The impact of three dimensional MHD instabilities on the generation of warm dense matter using a MA-class linear transformer driver. High Energy Density Physics, 24, 50–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hedp.2017.07.001