Purpose To mathematically model and test ex vivo a modified technique of irreversible electroporation (IRE) to produce large spherical ablations by using a single probe. Materials and Methods Computed simulations were performed by using varying voltages, electrode exposure lengths, and tissue types. A vegetable (potato) tissue model was then used to compare ablations created by conventional and high-frequency IRE protocols by using 2 probe configurations: a single probe with two collinear electrodes (2EP) or a single electrode configured with a grounding pad (P+GP). The new P+GP electrode configuration was evaluated in ex vivo liver tissue. Results The P+GP configuration produced more spherical ablation volumes than the 2EP configuration in computed simulations and tissue models. In prostate tissue, computed simulations predicted ablation volumes at 3,000 V of 1.6 cm3 for the P+GP configurations, compared with 0.94 cm3 for the 2EP configuration; in liver tissue, the predicted ablation volumes were 4.7 times larger than those in the prostate. Vegetable model studies verify that the P+GP configuration produces larger and more spherical ablations than those produced by the 2EP. High-frequency IRE treatment of ex vivo liver with the P+GP configuration created a 2.84 × 2.21-cm ablation zone. Conclusions Computer modeling showed that P+GP configuration for IRE procedures yields ablations that are larger than the 2EP configuration, creating substantial ablation zones with a single electrode placement. When tested in tissue models and an ex vivo liver model, the P+GP configuration created ablation zones that appear to be of clinically relevant size and shape.
Sano, M. B., Fan, R. E., Hwang, G. L., Sonn, G. A., & Xing, L. (2016). Production of Spherical Ablations Using Nonthermal Irreversible Electroporation: A Laboratory Investigation Using a Single Electrode and Grounding Pad. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 27(9), 1432-1440.e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2016.05.032