Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have attracted considerable attention because of its high efficiency, low-cost fabrication, and flexibility. The film morphology has to be well controlled since the presence of pinholes in the perovskite films deteriorates the performance of the devices. Therefore, a variety of methods have been developed to realize high quality perovskite films and excellent device performance. In this work, hot-casting technique and additive engineering were investigated for obtaining a better film morphology. Optical microscopy, electron scanning microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to monitor the morphology and the crystallinity of the perovskite films. We found that pinhole-free perovskite films cannot be obtained by the hot-casting technique alone. By using the hot-casting technique and incorporating the additive in the perovskite precursor, perovskite films with minimum pinholes were obtained when optimum hot-casting temperature and the amount of the additive were used. A reproducible average power conversion efficiency of 9.24 % was observed. The findings showed that the perovskite films depend not only on the usage of hot-casting technique but also through the incorporation of additives which can be used for other perovskite materials utilizing as solar cells.
Feria, D. N., Chang, C. Y., Mahesh, K. P. O., Hsu, C. L., & Chao, Y. C. (2020). Perovskite solar cells based on a perovskite film with improved film coverage. Synthetic Metals, 260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2019.116283