Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent that is associated with severe side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. However, the extent, mechanisms and potential prevention and treatment strategies of CY-induced acute hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity are largely unknown. In this study, we determined the existence and extent of CY-induced acute hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, and demonstrated the effect of ALDH2 on CY-induced acute tissue toxicity and related mechanisms. Adult male C57BL/6J (wide-type, WT) and ALDH2−/− (KO) mice were divided into four groups: WT, WT + CY, KO + CY and WT + CY + Alda-1. Biochemical analysis showed that plasma ALT was increased by 35.8% in KO + CY group and decreased by 21.1% in WT + CY + Alda-1 group compared to WT + CY group (P < 0.05, respectively). However, there was no significant difference among WT, WT + CY and KO + CY groups regarding plasma renal marker enzymes, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and cystatin C (CysC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and toxic aldehydes (acrolein, 4-hydroxynonenol and malondialdehyde) were increased significantly in KO + CY group and decreased significantly in WT + CY + Alda-1 group compared to WT + CY group (P < 0.05, respectively). These findings demonstrate that CY could induce acute hepatotoxicity without nephrotoxicity, and ALDH2 plays a protective role in CY-induced acute hepatotoxicity. The underlying mechanisms are associated with attenuating oxidative stress and detoxifying reactive aldehydes.
Zhai, X., Zhang, Z., Liu, W., Liu, B., Zhang, R., Wang, W., … Chen, Y. (2018). Protective effect of ALDH2 against cyclophosphamide-induced acute hepatotoxicity via attenuating oxidative stress and reactive aldehydes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 499(1), 93–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.03.041