Comparing the efficacy of sodium valproate and levetiracetam following initial lorazepam in elderly patients with generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE): A prospective randomized controlled pilot study

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Abstract

Purpose: This randomized control study was conducted to compare the efficacy of sodium valproate (SVP) and levetiracetam (LEV) following initial intravenous lorazepam in elderly patients (age: >60years) with generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) and to identify predictors of poor seizure control. Methods: A total of 118 patients (mean age: 67.5 ± 7.5 years, M:F = 1.6:1), who had presented with GCSE were randomized into the SVP or LEV treatment arms. All patients received initial intravenous lorazepam (0.1 mg/kg) followed by one of the two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), parenteral SVP (20–25 mg/kg) or LEV (20–25 mg/kg). Those who failed to achieve control with the initial AED, were crossed over to receive the other AED. One-hundred patients (SVP = 50; LEV = 50) completed the study. Results: SE could be controlled with lorazepam and one of the AEDs (SVP or LEV) in 71.18% (84/118). Intention-to-treat analysis showed that the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of seizure control [SVP: 41/60 (68.3%); LEV: 43/58 (74.1%), p = 0.486]. Of 100 patients who completed the study, seizure control was achieved in 38/50(76%) in the SVP and 43/50(86%) in the LEV group (p = 0.202). After crossing over to the second AED, SE could be controlled in an additional in 50% (6/12) in SVP (+LEV) group and in 14.3% (1/7) in LEV (+SVP) group. Overall, after the second AED, seizure control was achieved in 77.1% (91/118). Higher STESS was associated with poor therapeutic response (p = 0.049). Conclusions: The efficacy of SVP and LEV following initial lorazepam in controlling GCSE in elderly population was comparable, hence the choice of AED could be individualized.

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Nene, D., Mundlamuri, R. C., Satishchandra, P., Prathyusha, P. V., Nagappa, M., Bindu, P. S., … Sinha, S. (2019). Comparing the efficacy of sodium valproate and levetiracetam following initial lorazepam in elderly patients with generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE): A prospective randomized controlled pilot study. Seizure, 65, 111–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2019.01.015

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