Purpose: This randomized control study was conducted to compare the efficacy of sodium valproate (SVP) and levetiracetam (LEV) following initial intravenous lorazepam in elderly patients (age: >60years) with generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) and to identify predictors of poor seizure control. Methods: A total of 118 patients (mean age: 67.5 ± 7.5 years, M:F = 1.6:1), who had presented with GCSE were randomized into the SVP or LEV treatment arms. All patients received initial intravenous lorazepam (0.1 mg/kg) followed by one of the two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), parenteral SVP (20–25 mg/kg) or LEV (20–25 mg/kg). Those who failed to achieve control with the initial AED, were crossed over to receive the other AED. One-hundred patients (SVP = 50; LEV = 50) completed the study. Results: SE could be controlled with lorazepam and one of the AEDs (SVP or LEV) in 71.18% (84/118). Intention-to-treat analysis showed that the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of seizure control [SVP: 41/60 (68.3%); LEV: 43/58 (74.1%), p = 0.486]. Of 100 patients who completed the study, seizure control was achieved in 38/50(76%) in the SVP and 43/50(86%) in the LEV group (p = 0.202). After crossing over to the second AED, SE could be controlled in an additional in 50% (6/12) in SVP (+LEV) group and in 14.3% (1/7) in LEV (+SVP) group. Overall, after the second AED, seizure control was achieved in 77.1% (91/118). Higher STESS was associated with poor therapeutic response (p = 0.049). Conclusions: The efficacy of SVP and LEV following initial lorazepam in controlling GCSE in elderly population was comparable, hence the choice of AED could be individualized.
Nene, D., Mundlamuri, R. C., Satishchandra, P., Prathyusha, P. V., Nagappa, M., Bindu, P. S., … Sinha, S. (2019). Comparing the efficacy of sodium valproate and levetiracetam following initial lorazepam in elderly patients with generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE): A prospective randomized controlled pilot study. Seizure, 65, 111–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2019.01.015