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This chapter discusses three important elementary mathematical content areas: numbers and operations, geometry, and probability and statistics; task selections through the lens of a growth mindset; and strategies to foster positive mathematical identity in learners. It also discusses three important elementary mathematical content areas: numbers and operations, geometry, and probability and statistics. Numbers and operations lay key foundations for children’s mathematical learning. Numbers are used for quantification; for example, to describe “how many” of some objects or “how much” of something there are. Geometry is an important part of the elementary mathematics curriculum. It is the branch of mathematics that concerns properties and relationships of shapes and spaces. The mental representations of properties and relationships of shapes constitute spatial thinking. Kindergarteners can identify, compare, and compose shapes; around first grade, children learn about equal shares, and by second grade, children can divide simple polygons, such as rectangles and circles, into halves, thirds, fourths, etc.

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Hajra, S. G. (2021). Mathematics. In *Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum and Instruction: Pedagogy for Knowledge, Attitudes, and Values* (pp. 108–144). Taylor and Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429353147-5

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