Immunohistochemical evaluation of salivary gland tumors differentiation and proliferation by using calponin and telomerase

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Abstract

Background: Salivary gland tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions with diverse histological features. Hence they are considered as a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. Myoepithelial cells are considered as a key in the morphogenetic process, with diverse differentiation in various salivary gland tumors. Calponin is an actin filament- associated protein that represents a sensitive marker of myoepithelial cells. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that adds telomere repeats at the end of chromosomes in order to prevent replicative senescence. It has a key role in cellular immortality and tumorgenesis of various tumors. This study evaluates the immunohistochemical expression of calponin and telomerase in various salivary gland tumors. Methods: This retrospective study involved 30 formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks of salivary gland tumors. The immunohistochemical staining and evaluation of subcellular localization, pattern, intensity, and distribution for calponin and immune scoring for telomerase were done. The statistical analyses of data were conducted by Chi-square and ANOVA-test, a P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Calponin showed expression at the periphery of acini and intercalated ducts in the normal salivary gland. It revealed cytoplasmic expression in 83.3% of benign tumors. The pleomorphic adenoma showed a diffuse pattern of staining (85.7%), strong intensity (64.3%), and mixed distributions (57.1%). The diffuse pattern of calponin was seen in all cases of mucoepidermoid, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (100%). Telomerase revealed negative expression in the normal salivary gland. Pleomorphic adenoma illustrated high telomerase expression in score 2 and score 3 (93.3%). Telomerase immune scoring is significantly related to the benign tumors as P value was 0.03. Both polymorphous low grade and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma were detected only in score 3. Finally, the mean level of telomerase activity was slightly higher in malignant tumors than benign ones with non-significant relation as P value was 0.6. Conclusions: Calponin showed high diffuse staining with altered distribution in salivary gland tumors, which might give an additional role for this marker in the identification of luminal immuno-modified neoplastic cells. Telomerase is considered as a useful marker in identifying proliferation capacity of salivary gland tumors and is remarkably more detected in malignant salivary gland tumors.

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Abdulrahman, S. S., Mohammad, D. N., Hamied, M. A., & Abdulqadir, M. O. (2019). Immunohistochemical evaluation of salivary gland tumors differentiation and proliferation by using calponin and telomerase. Saudi Dental Journal, 31(1), 105–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sdentj.2018.11.007

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