Background: Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are rare in the pediatric population and are usually considered difficult to treat with traditional microsurgery owing to their complex morphology. Endovascular techniques have become the standard option for treating IAs in adults. More recently, flow diverters, such as the Pipeline embolization device (PED), are being widely adopted for unruptured IAs, with proven safety and efficacy in adults; however, their use in the pediatric population is not well defined. Here we report a pediatric patient with a ruptured posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm successfully treated with a PED, and provide a review of the literature on the current status of PED use in this subset of patients. Case Description: A previously healthy 4-year old boy presented to the emergency department with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) suggested a ruptured dissecting aneurysm in the right PCA. After discussing treatment options with the child's parents, off-label use of the PED device was chosen. A single PED device was successfully deployed within 24 hours of onset. At a 6-month follow-up, the patient was fully recovered, with a modified Rankin Scale score of 0, and MRA showed complete occlusion of the aneurysm and patency of the parent vessel. Conclusions: Even though the PED has not received Food and Drug Administration approval to treat IAs in children, the literature reports favorable outcomes with this application. Thus, the PED may be a feasible option for treating challenging cases occurring more frequently in the pediatric population. Further studies in pediatric populations are needed to determine whether this technology is a viable and durable option for treating aneurysms in children.
Cunegatto-Braga, M., Hogan, B., Aguilar-Salinas, P., Beier, A. D., & Hanel, R. A. (2018). Pipeline Embolization Device Flow Diversion for a Dissecting Ruptured Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm in a Pediatric Patient. World Neurosurgery, 117, 255–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.06.031