High resolution LC-MS characterization of phenolic compounds and the evaluation of antioxidant properties of a tropical purple radish genotype

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Abstract

This study reports qualitative profiling of the phenolic compounds in an indigenously developed purple radish genotype VRRAD-151 using ultra performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry. The root and leaf samples were harvested at the horticultural maturity stage of the genotype. Roots were divided into the periderm, and xylem, and the leaf samples were divided into petiole, and lamina, and these were separately extracted with methanol before the LC-MS analysis. A total of 66 compounds, including 23 flavonols, 1 dihydroflavonols, 4 flavonones, 4 flavones, 28 anthocyanins, 2 isoflavonoids, 3 phenolic acids, and 1 hydroxybenzaldehyde were putatively identified based on high resolution accurate mass analysis with the data processing through UNIFI®, which is a comprehensive compound identification software solution. An in-house developed database comprising the secondary metabolites of polyphenols was used for the screening purpose, and each phenolic compound was identified based on the detection of the precursor ion, and at least one characteristic fragment ion, each with less than 5 ppm of mass error. Anthocyanins were the most abundant type of phenolics exhibiting 59% in leaf petiole, 80% in root periderm, and 90% in root xylem. The relative concentration of anthocyanins was lower (11%) in the leaf lamina. Cyanidins were the most predominant anthocyanins accounting for 54, 100, 90 and 65%, in leaf lamina, leaf petiole, root periderm and root xylem, respectively. Eight anthocyanins and 25 flavonols (except kaempferol-3-O-p-coumaryl-shophoroside-7-O-glucoside) are tentatively new identifications and reported for the first time in radish. Flavonols were found to be the predominant group of phenolic compounds in the leaf lamina, and interestingly, the gradient of antioxidant activity followed the (relative) concentration gradient of flavonols in the samples. The relative antioxidant activity of various fractions when compared with each other, followed the trend: leaf lamina > root periderm > leaf petiole ≈ root xylem. Based on the results it can be reflected that this genotype can be utilized as a functional food for management of various human and animal diseases. Since the detected anthocyanins were mostly present in acylated forms, this genotype can function as a potential source of stable natural colorants.

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Koley, T. K., Khan, Z., Oulkar, D., Singh, B. K., Maurya, A., Singh, B., & Banerjee, K. (2020). High resolution LC-MS characterization of phenolic compounds and the evaluation of antioxidant properties of a tropical purple radish genotype. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 13(1), 1355–1366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.11.007

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