Exosomal miR-409-3p secreted from activated mast cells promotes microglial migration, activation and neuroinflammation by targeting Nr4a2 to activate the NF-κB pathway

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Abstract

Objective: Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in central nervous system diseases. Exosomal miRNAs released from various cells are implicated in cell-to-cell communication. Prior studies have placed substantial emphasis on the role of cytokines in mast cell-microglia interactions during neuroinflammation. However, it has never been clearly determined whether exosomal miRNAs participate in the interaction between mast cells and microglia and thus mediate neuroinflammation. Methods: The characteristics of exosomes isolated from cell culture supernatants were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle-tracking analysis (NTA) and Western blot. The transfer of PKH67-labelled exosomes and Cy3-labelled miR-409-3p was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Migration and activation of murine BV-2 microglial cells were evaluated through Transwell assays and immunofluorescence staining for Iba1 and CD68. CD86, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were assessed via qRT-PCR and ELISA. MiR-409-3p was detected by qRT-PCR. Nr4a2 and NF-κB levels were measured by western blot. Regulatory effects were identified by luciferase reporter assays. Results: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine P815 mast cells secreted exosomes that were efficiently taken up by murine BV-2 cells, which promoted murine BV-2 cell migration and activation. LPS-P815 exosomes increased the CD86, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in murine BV-2 microglia. Furthermore, activated mast cells delivered exosomal miR-409-3p to murine BV-2 microglia. Upregulated miR-409-3p promoted murine BV-2 microglial migration, activation and neuroinflammation by targeting Nr4a2 to activate the NF-κB pathway. Conclusion: Exosomal miR-409-3p secreted from activated mast cells promotes microglial migration, activation and neuroinflammation by targeting Nr4a2 to activate the NF-κB pathway, which provides evidence that not only cytokines but also exosomal miRNAs participate in neuroinflammation. In the future, targeting exosomal miRNAs may provide new insights into neuroinflammation.

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APA

Hu, L., Si, L., Dai, X., Dong, H., Ma, Z., Sun, Z., … Zhang, Z. (2021). Exosomal miR-409-3p secreted from activated mast cells promotes microglial migration, activation and neuroinflammation by targeting Nr4a2 to activate the NF-κB pathway. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-021-02110-5

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