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Objective: Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in central nervous system diseases. Exosomal miRNAs released from various cells are implicated in cell-to-cell communication. Prior studies have placed substantial emphasis on the role of cytokines in mast cell-microglia interactions during neuroinflammation. However, it has never been clearly determined whether exosomal miRNAs participate in the interaction between mast cells and microglia and thus mediate neuroinflammation. Methods: The characteristics of exosomes isolated from cell culture supernatants were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle-tracking analysis (NTA) and Western blot. The transfer of PKH67-labelled exosomes and Cy3-labelled miR-409-3p was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Migration and activation of murine BV-2 microglial cells were evaluated through Transwell assays and immunofluorescence staining for Iba1 and CD68. CD86, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were assessed via qRT-PCR and ELISA. MiR-409-3p was detected by qRT-PCR. Nr4a2 and NF-κB levels were measured by western blot. Regulatory effects were identified by luciferase reporter assays. Results: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine P815 mast cells secreted exosomes that were efficiently taken up by murine BV-2 cells, which promoted murine BV-2 cell migration and activation. LPS-P815 exosomes increased the CD86, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in murine BV-2 microglia. Furthermore, activated mast cells delivered exosomal miR-409-3p to murine BV-2 microglia. Upregulated miR-409-3p promoted murine BV-2 microglial migration, activation and neuroinflammation by targeting Nr4a2 to activate the NF-κB pathway. Conclusion: Exosomal miR-409-3p secreted from activated mast cells promotes microglial migration, activation and neuroinflammation by targeting Nr4a2 to activate the NF-κB pathway, which provides evidence that not only cytokines but also exosomal miRNAs participate in neuroinflammation. In the future, targeting exosomal miRNAs may provide new insights into neuroinflammation.
Hu, L., Si, L., Dai, X., Dong, H., Ma, Z., Sun, Z., … Zhang, Z. (2021). Exosomal miR-409-3p secreted from activated mast cells promotes microglial migration, activation and neuroinflammation by targeting Nr4a2 to activate the NF-κB pathway. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-021-02110-5