Conventional magnetic resonance methods that provide interior temperature profiles, which find use in clinical applications such as hyperthermic therapy, can develop inaccuracies caused by the inherently inhomogeneous magnetic field within tissues or by probe dynamics, and work poorly in important applications such as fatty tissues. We present a magnetic resonance method that is suitable for imaging temperature in a wide range of environments. It uses the inherently sharp resonances of intermolecular zero-quantum coherences, in this case flipping up a water spin while flipping down a nearby fat spin. We show that this method can rapidly and accurately assign temperatures in vivo on an absolute scale.
Galiana, G., Branca, R. T., Jenista, E. R., & Warren, W. S. (2008). Accurate temperature imaging based on intermolecular coherences in magnetic resonance. Science, 322(5900), 421–424. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1163242