Amblyomin-X is a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (Kunitz-type SPI) designed from the cDNA library of the Amblyomma cajennense tick, which displays in vivo anti-tumor activities. Here, the mechanisms of actions of Amblyomin-X in vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-induced angiogenesis were characterized. Topical application of Amblyomin-X (10 or 100 ng/10 μl; each 48 h) inhibited VEGF-A-induced (10 ng/10 μl; each 48 h) angiogenesis in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue in male Swiss mice. Moreover, similar effect was observed in the VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Additional in vitro assays in t-End cells showed that Amblyomin-X treatment delayed the cell cycle, by maintaining them in G0/G1 phase, and inhibited cell proliferation and adhesion, tube formation and membrane expression of the adhesion molecule platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), regardless of mRNA synthesis. Together, results herein reveal the role of Kunitz-type SPI on in vivo VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis, by exerting modulatory actions on endothelial cell proliferation and adhesion, especially on membrane expression of PECAM-1. These data provide further mechanisms of actions of Kunitz-type SPI, corroborating their relevance as scientific tools in the design of therapeutic molecules. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Drewes, C. C., Dias, R. Y. S., Hebeda, C. B., Simons, S. M., Barreto, S. A., Ferreira, J. M., … Farsky, S. H. P. (2012). Actions of the Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor Amblyomin-X on VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis. Toxicon, 60(3), 333–340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.04.349