Background African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected by acute heart failure (AHF) compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Disparities in AHF risk factors among AAs are attributed to higher rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, lower socioeconomic status, higher dietary caloric and salt intake, and biologic/genetic differences. However, AAs are frequently underrepresented in AHF clinical trials, and race-related differences in risks and clinical outcomes are not well understood. Objective The aim of this work was to review published data on AHF in the AA population, including management strategies that may differ based on race and common barriers to optimal care. Methods Publications were identified in Pubmed (through June 10, 2013) with the use of the search strategy terms (acute heart failure) AND (black OR African American OR racial). Results Racial disparities in the quality of AHF care are relatively uncommon; however, racial differences in pathophysiology have resulted in differing pharmacologic recommendations (eg, isosorbide dinitrate plus hydralazine is indicated only in AAs). Various socioeconomic factors influence disease progression, treatment compliance, and hospitalization/ rehospitalization rates. Conclusions Further research would enhance understanding of pathophysiologic heart failure differences between racial groups. Programs are needed that incorporate known clinical and cultural differences to improve quality of care and reduce the disease burden of AHF for all patients. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cuyjet, A. B., & Akinboboye, O. (2014). Acute heart failure in the African American patient. Journal of Cardiac Failure. Churchill Livingstone Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2014.04.018