Acute Pancreatitis in Patients Living with HIV

  • Mouna E
  • Ibrahim D
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Abstract

Background: Acute pancreatitis in HIV positive patients remains a management challenge even with a Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) era. Objective: Report the prevalence, clinical and radiological features of acute pancreatitis associated with HIV. Patients and methods: Retrospective study conducted from January 1999 to June 2015 in HIV positive patients admitted with acute pancreatitis in the Infectious Disease Unit, Ibn Rochd, Casablanca. The Balthazar Grade score was used to assess radiological severity of the disease. Results: During this period, 39 patients had an acute pancreatitis or an incidence of 0.6/1000 inhabitant/year. The mean age was 33.72 years (range: 18 to 48 years), mostly represented by females (68% to 32% male). The known risk factors included an alcohol abuse in 15 patients (52%), a history of pancreatitis in two patients (5%), cholecystitis in four patients (14%), and intravenous drug abuse in two patients (5%). Nineteen patients (65%) were on HAART regimen and only nine patients (31%) were receiving cotrimoxazole as prophylaxis. Twenty-two patients (76%) were in stage C of CDC. Twenty-one (72%) patients had a mean CD4 count below 200/mm3 and a HIV viral load above 1000 copies/ml in seventy nineteen (65%) patients. Pancreatitis was symptomatic in all cases. The median amylasemia level was 120 IU/L, serum lipase 672.7 IU/L and 1,23 mg/dl triglycerides. All patients had an abnormal pancreas CT scan of which twelve (41%) patients were in stage A of AP. The main causes found were drug toxicity of which 6 cases were due to stavudine, meglumine antimony in 3 cases, didanosine in 1 case, anti-tuberculous treatment in 1 case and opportunistic infections of which 4 cases were tuberculosis, 4 cases of cytomegalovirus disease and cryptosporidiosis in 2 cases respectively. The main complications were: shock in 9 cases, 2 cases of diabetes and pancreatic pseudocysts in 2 cases. The evolution was fatal in 45% of cases. The median duration for hospital course was 10 days (range 6-50 days). Conclusion: Acute pancreatitis is a serious condition in HIV-positive patients. Drug toxicity and opportunistic infections represented the most frequent causes.

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APA

Mouna, E., & Ibrahim, D. (2016). Acute Pancreatitis in Patients Living with HIV. Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research, 7(8). https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6113.1000600

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