The constant discharge of agricultural waste into aquatic environment has led to accumulation of heavy chemicals and other variety of pollutants. Herbicides present in these wastes are washed down, carried by rains and flood to nearby aquatic environment. Glyphosate is one of the most popular herbicides used by farmers in Kano because of its active reaction on killing weeds without affecting the crops. A toxicity test of glyphosate was conducted using concentrations of 0, 0.004, 0.005, 0.006, 0.007 ml/l. The mortality rate of each concentration was determined and the physicochemical parameters (Dissolved oxygen and pH) were also determined. The result showed that high mortality occurs at 0.007 ml/l and less mortality was found at 0.004 ml/l. Hence, mortality is dose dependent. DO and pH decreases with increase in glyphosate concentration. Furthermore, the juveniles showed abnormal behaviour. The LC50 value at 96 h was 0.0072 ml/l. There was significant difference between the initial and final pH value (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the initial and final DO values showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). However, correlation between DO and pH showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). The findings of this study established that glyphosate has some level of toxicity on Clarias gariepinus juveniles. In addition, it was found that mortality, changes in behaviour, DO and pH are dose dependent. Therefore, it was suggested that an appropriate concentration that will not be detrimental to non-target organisms should be used by farmers. Alternatively, Biological method should be used as a substitute for chemical method of controlling weeds.
Sani, A., & Idris, M. K. (2016). Acute toxicity of herbicide (glyphosate) in Clarias gariepinus juveniles. Toxicology Reports, 3, 513–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2016.05.004