Adaptive functioning following traumatic brain injury and orthopedic injury: A controlled study

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Abstract

Objective: To study adaptive functioning after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Case-control study. Setting: A university hospital and three regional and four community hospitals. Subjects: A consecutive series (n = 24) of children age 5 through 14 years who suffered severe TBI were individually matched to subjects who sustained a mild TBI and to a second group who sustained an orthopedic injury with no evidence of TBI. Main Outcome Measures: Standardized adaptive functioning, intellectual, psychiatric, and neuroimaging assessments were conducted on average 2 years after injury. Results: Severe TBI was associated with significantly (p < .05) lower Vineland Adaptive Behavior composite, communication, and socialization standard scores and lower Child Behavior Checklist parent-rated social competence scores compared with children with orthopedic injury. Severe TBI and mild TBI subjects were significantly (p < .05) more impaired than orthopedic subjects on teacher-rated adaptive function. Family functioning, psychiatric disorder in the child, and IQ were significant variables, explaining between 22% and 47% of the variance in adaptive functioning outcomes. Conclusions: Severe TBI is associated with significant deficits in child adaptive functioning. This association appears to be mediated by family dysfunction, child psychiatric disorder, and intellectual deficits.

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APA

Max, J. E., Koele, S. L., Lindgren, S. D., Robin, D. A., Smith, W. L., Sato, Y., & Arndt, S. (1998). Adaptive functioning following traumatic brain injury and orthopedic injury: A controlled study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79(8), 893–899. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(98)90084-3

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