The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is frequently mutated in human cancer. This pathway consists of a small GTP protein of the RAS family that is activated in response to extracellular signaling to recruit a member of the RAF kinase family to the cell membrane. Active RAF signals through MAP/ERK kinase to activate ERK and its downstream effectors to regulate a wide range of biological activities including cell differentiation, proliferation, senescence, and survival. Mutations in the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogenes homolog B1 (BRAF) isoform of the RAF kinase or KRAS isoform of the RAS protein are found as activating mutations in approximately 30% of all human cancers. The BRAF pathway has become a target of interest for molecular therapy, with promising results emerging from clinical trials. Here, the role of the most common BRAF mutation BRAF V600E in human carcinogenesis is investigated through a review of the literature, with specific focus on its role in melanoma, colorectal, and thyroid cancers and its potential as a therapeutic target. ©2011 AACR.
Cantwell-Dorris, E. R., O’Leary, J. J., & Sheils, O. M. (2011, March). BRAFV600E: Implications for carcinogenesis and molecular therapy. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. https://doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0799