Adenoviral (ADV) infections are increasingly recognized as a cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We reviewed our experience with ADV infections in HSCT patients hospitalized for transplantation at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles January 1998 through December 1998. ADV was detected in 47% of patients, with recipients of HSCT from alternative donors (matched unrelated, unrelated cord, and mismatched related donors) being more frequently culture positive than recipients of HSCT from matched siblings (62% versus 27%, P = .04). Detection of ADV from 2 or more sites was associated with organ injury, eg, hemorrhagic cystitis, enteritis, and hepatitis. Because of the high incidence of ADV culture-positive patients and the lack of effective anti-ADV therapy, we initiated a prospective trial to evaluate cidofovir (CDV) in the treatment of ADV infections in HSCT recipients. Eight patients were enrolled on a dosage schedule of 1 mg/kg 3 times weekly. All of these patients eventually achieved long-term viral suppression and clinical improvement, although 6 patients needed prolonged CDV therapy for up to 8 months before CDV could be stopped without ADV recurrence. We did not observe dose-limiting nephrotoxicity, and the discontinuation of the drug was not required in any patients. Prospective controlled trials to further define the role of CDV in the treatment of ADV infections in HSCT patients are warranted.
Hoffman, J. A., Shah, A. J., Ross, L. A., & Kapoor, N. (2001). Adenoviral infections and a prospective trial of cidofovir in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 7(7), 388–394. https://doi.org/10.1053/bbmt.2001.v7.pm11529489