Background: The major established etiologic risk factor for bladder cancer is cigarette smoking and one of the major antineoplastic agents used for the treatment of advanced bladder cancer is cisplatin. A number of reports have suggested that cancer patients who smoke while receiving treatment have lower rates of response and decreased efficacy of cancer therapies. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) vapor on cisplatin toxicity in urothelial cell lines SV-HUC-1 and SCaBER cells. We showed that chronic exposure to CSC vapor induced cisplatin resistance in both cell lines. In addition, we found that the expression of mitochondrial-resident protein adenylate kinase-3 (AK3) is decreased by CSC vapor. We further observed that chronic CSC vapor-exposed cells displayed decreased cellular sensitivity to cisplatin, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and increased basal cellular ROS levels compared to unexposed cells. Re-expression of AK3 in CSC vapor-exposed cells restored cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Finally, CSC vapor increased the growth of the tumors and also curtail the response of tumor cells to cisplatin chemotherapy in vivo. Conclusions/Significance: The current study provides evidence that chronic CSC vapor exposure affects AK3 expression and renders the cells resistant to cisplatin.
Chang, X., Ravi, R., Pham, V., Bedi, A., Chatterjee, A., & Sidransky, D. (2011). Adenylate kinase 3 sensitizes cells to cigarette smoke condensate vapor induced cisplatin resistance. PLoS ONE, 6(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020806