The world's oceans are now attracting the serious attention of conservationists. Paradoxically, as the value of marine biological diversity is recognized, the ecosystems that harbor this diversity are fast becoming degraded. New thinking about how to conserve coastal areas has resulted in protected-area models that incorporate principles of landscape ecology, adaptive and ecosystem management, and zoning in protected-area plans.
Agardy, M. T. (1994). Advances in marine conservation: the role of marine protected areas. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 9(7), 267–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(94)90297-6