Introduction . Tendons are specialised, heterogeneous connective tissues, which represent a significant healthcare challenge after injury. Primary surgical repair is the gold standard modality of care; however, it is highly dependent on the extent of injuries. Tissue engineering represents an alternative solution for good tissue integration and regeneration. In this review, we look at the advanced biomaterial composites employed to improve cellular growth while providing appropriate mechanical properties for tendon and ligament repair. Methodology . Comprehensive literature searches focused on advanced composite biomaterials for tendon and ligament tissue engineering. Studies were categorised depending on the application. Results . In the literature, a range of natural and/or synthetic materials have been combined to produce composite scaffolds tendon and ligament tissue engineering. In vitro and in vivo assessment demonstrate promising cellular integration with sufficient mechanical strength. The biological properties were improved with the addition of growth factors within the composite materials. Most in vivo studies were completed in small-scale animal models. Conclusions . Advanced composite materials represent a promising solution to the challenges associated with tendon and ligament tissue engineering. Nevertheless, these approaches still demonstrate limitations, including the necessity of larger-scale animal models to ease future clinical translation and comprehensive assessment of tissue response after implantation.
Alshomer, F., Chaves, C., & Kalaskar, D. M. (2018). Advances in Tendon and Ligament Tissue Engineering: Materials Perspective. Journal of Materials, 2018, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9868151