Factors associated with tuberculosis by HIV status in the Brazilian national surveillance system: A cross sectional study

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Abstract

Background: Over the last decade tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality in Brazil have been steadily declining. However, this downward trend has not been observed among HIV-infected patients. We describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of TB patients by HIV status using the Brazilian National Surveillance System.Methods: All TB diagnoses with HIV status information between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011 were categorized as either HIV or non-HIV at time of TB diagnosis. Co-infected patients (TB-HIV) were compared to TB patients with no HIV-infection using a hierarchical logistic regression model using Stata 13.0.Results: The prevalence of TB-HIV co-infection was 19% among adults ≥ 15 years of age. We analyzed data from 243,676 individuals, of whom 46,466 were TB-HIV and 197,210 were only TB cases. The following factors increased risk of co-infection: male sex (OR: 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), 20 to 39 years of age (OR = 4.82, 95% CI 4.34-5.36), black (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.13), 4-7 years of education (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.19-1.28), diagnosed following default (OR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.13-6.25), presenting with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary forms of TB simultaneously (OR = 2.80, 95% CI 1.56-5.02), presenting with histopathologic examination suggestive of TB (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.13-4.07). Co-infected patients were less likely to live in rural areas (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.42-0.48), have diabetes (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.40-0.50) and be smear positive (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.95), and co-infected patients had higher risk of default (OR = 2.96, 95% CI 2.36-3.71) and death from TB (OR = 5.16, 95% CI 43.04-5.77).Conclusions: The prevalence of co-infection with HIV among TB patients is 19% in Brazil. By identifying predictors of co-infection targeted interventions can be developed to prevent both TB and HIV, and to diagnose each disease earlier and ultimately decrease poor treatment outcomes and death. © 2014 do Prado et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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do Prado, T. N., Miranda, A. E., de Souza, F. M., dos Santos Dias, E., Sousa, L. K. F., Arakaki-Sanchez, D., … Maciel, E. L. (2014). Factors associated with tuberculosis by HIV status in the Brazilian national surveillance system: A cross sectional study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-14-415

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