Pharmaceutical compounds have been detected frequently in surface and ground water. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) were reported as very efficient for removal of various organic compounds. Nevertheless, due to incomplete degradation, toxic intermediates can induce more severe effects than the parent compound. Therefore, toxicity studies are necessary for the evaluation of possible uses of AOPs.In this study the effectiveness and capacity for environmental application of three different AOPs were estimated. They were applied and evaluated for removal of ibuprofen from water solutions. Therefore, two treatments were performed in a non-thermal plasma reactor with dielectric barrier discharge with and without a homogenous catalyst (Fe2+). The third treatment was the Fenton reaction.The degradation rate of ibuprofen was measured by HPLC-DAD and the main degradation products were identified using LC-MS TOF. Twelve degradation products were identified, and there were differences according to the various treatments applied. Toxicity effects were determined with two bioassays: Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina. The efficiency of AOPs was demonstrated for all treatments, where after 15. min degradation percentage was over 80% accompanied by opening of the aromatic ring. In the treatment with homogenous catalyst degradation reached 99%. V. fischeri toxicity test has shown greater sensitivity to ibuprofen solution after the Fenton treatment in comparison to A. salina.
Marković, M., Jović, M., Stanković, D., Kovačević, V., Roglić, G., Gojgić-Cvijović, G., & Manojlović, D. (2015). Application of non-thermal plasma reactor and Fenton reaction for degradation of ibuprofen. Science of the Total Environment, 505, 1148–1155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.11.017