The purpose of this brief paper is to unravel several quite different understandings of "affirmative action" in our personal conduct toward one another, and in our laws. More specifically, the purpose is to separate varieties of affirmative actions that do not countenance racial stereotyping, labeling and various forms of racial discrimination - whether personal or impersonal - from actions and programs that routinely engage both of these practices such as they are.
Dawson, G. (1999). Affirmative action. Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)76668-X