Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the decline of coral reefs throughout the world, but none adequately accounts for the lack of recovery of reefs or the wide geographical distribution of coral diseases. The processes driving the decline remain elusive. Hundreds of millions of tons of dust transported annually from Africa and Asia to the Americas may be adversely affecting coral reefs and other downwind ecosystems. Viable microorganisms, macro- and micronutrients, trace metals, and an array of organic contaminants carried in the dust air masses and deposited in the oceans and on land may play important roles in the complex changes occurring on coral reefs worldwide.
GARRISON, V. H., SHINN, E. A., FOREMAN, W. T., GRIFFIN, D. W., HOLMES, C. W., KELLOGG, C. A., … SMITH, G. W. (2003). African and Asian Dust: From Desert Soils to Coral Reefs. BioScience, 53(5), 469. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[0469:aaadfd]2.0.co;2