Background: Baseline age and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were examined as determinants of CD4+ T-cell recovery during 6 months of tuberculosis (TB) therapy with/without cART. It was determined whether this association was modified by patient sex and nutritional status. Methods: This longitudinal analysis included 208 immune-competent, non-pregnant, ART-naive HIV-positive patients from Uganda with a first episode of pulmonary TB. CD4+ T-cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. Age was defined as ≤24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35-39 vs. ≥40 years. Nutritional status was defined as normal (>18.5kg/m 2 ) vs. underweight (≤18.5kg/m 2 ) using the body mass index (BMI). Multivariate random effects linear mixed models were fitted to estimate differences in CD4+ T-cell recovery in relation to specified determinants. Results: cART was associated with a monthly rise of 15.7 cells/μl (p<0.001). Overall, age was not associated with CD4+ T-cell recovery during TB therapy (p = 0.655). However, among patients on cART, the age-associated CD4+ T-cell recovery rate varied by sex and nutritional status, such that age <40 vs. ≥40 years predicted superior absolute CD4+ T-cell recovery among females (p=0.006) and among patients with a BMI ≥18.5kg/m 2 (p<0.001). Conclusions: TB-infected HIV-positive patients aged ≥40 years have a slower rate of immune restoration given cART, particularly if BMI is >18.5kg/m 2 or they are female. These patients may benefit from increased monitoring and nutritional support during cART.
Ezeamama, A. E., Mupere, E., Oloya, J., Martinez, L., Kakaire, R., Yin, X., … Whalen, C. C. (2015). Age, sex, and nutritional status modify the CD4+ T-cell recovery rate in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 35, 73–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2015.04.008