Rice fields are ecosystems with many types of plants, microbes, invertebrates, birds and animals. The rice farming protects the biodiversity of the region and maintains the ecosystem for the benefit of environment. Some rice varieties release biocidal allelochemicals which might affect major weeds, microbial and pathogenic diversity around rice plants, even soil characteristics. A large number of compounds such as phenolic acids, fatty acids, indoles and terpenes have been identified in rice root exudates and decomposing rice residues, as putative allelochemicals which can interact with surrounding environment. Since these allelopathic interactions may be positive, they can be used as effective contributor for sustainable and eco-friendly agro-production system. Genetic modification of crop plants to improve their allelopathic properties and enhancement of desirable traits has been suggested. Development of crops with enhanced allelopathic traits by genetic modification should be done cautiously, keeping in view of the ecological risk assessment (non-toxic and safe for humans and ecosystem, crop productivity, ratio of benefit and cost, etc.).
Amb, M. K., & Ahluwalia, A. S. (2016, July 1). Allelopathy: Potential Role to Achieve New Milestones in Rice Cultivation. Rice Science. Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsci.2016.06.001