Allergic diseases in the gastrointestinal tract

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Abstract

This chapter reviews the role of mucosal effector cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, and Th2-type cells, in the development of allergic reactions in the gastrointestinal tract. Mucosal eosinophils, mast cells, and T cells play a critical role in the development of gastrointestinal allergic reactions. They have also elucidated the complex cell-to-cell interactions involved in the induction and regulation of mucosal cell-mediated allergic diseases. Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes involved in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. Aberrant eosinophil accumulation in the gastrointestinal tissues is often associated with serious clinical symptoms such as-gastric dysmotility, malabsorption, cachexia, or diarrhea. Eosinophils can potentially initiate antigen-specific immune responses by mimicking antigen-presenting cells. In this regard, eosinophils express major histocompatibility (MHC) class II and costimulatory molecules, such as CD40, CD80, and CD86. Mast cells are the main effector cells in the development of IgE-mediated allergic responses. The pathologic processes of mucosal allergic reactions are known to be mediated by T helper (Th)2-type cells, which preferentially produce IgE-enhancing cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Kweon, M. N., & Kiyono, H. (2005). Allergic diseases in the gastrointestinal tract. In Mucosal Immunology, Two-Volume Set (pp. 1351–1360). Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012491543-5/50080-2

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